All posts tagged “information literacy

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Scaffolding Instruction

Hagia Sophia Scaffolding (detail) by Flickr user kutluhan celik

Photo credit: Hagia Sophia Scaffolding (detail) by Flickr user kutluhan celik

Beginning this week I’ll be teaching a variety of classes for several different departments on campus. I’m excited to get back in to the classroom and try out a few new lessons. All of the sessions cover fairly straight-forward content: EndNote 101, searching the scholarly literature, search strategies for novice researchers, and refreshers for senior students. My only lament about these classes is that there is no rhyme or reason to the structure of the skills that these students learn.

  • I’m teaching EndNote to two different required classes in the same department (one a 200 level, the other a 300 level course).
  • I’m teaching search strategies and database navigation to two different required classes in the same department (one a 200 level, the other a 400 level course).
  • I’m teaching a core course where students will learn (yup, you guessed it) search strategies and database navigation.

I have no problem teaching these topics, although I must admit I cringe when asked to do a database demo and usually try to steer the lesson towards developing research skills instead. I just fear that students are getting the same class multiple times throughout their college career, instead of building on their information literacy skill set in the same way that they progressively learn more about their major area of study through traditional coursework. Or if I’m being completely honest with myself, I don’t fear that this repetition is taking place, I know it is. I counted on it when I taught research sessions for psychology students at the University of Houston, and even built lessons around the fact that I knew at least 5 students in any given class would have already been in a class that discussed conducting a literature review using scholarly sources.

The college where I am currently employed has adopted information literacy as one of the core skills for a liberal arts education, and yet there is still not a programmatic approach to incorporating information literacy into the major areas of study.  Librarians’ involvement with classes is completely at each professor’s discretion, and the content we teach often overlaps. It’s not for lack of trying that we’re still at this one-shot stage. Our librarians are active liaisons and busy teachers, we just can’t seem to move past the supporting role into a partnership with our departmental faculty.

I suspect it may have something to do with departments often finding it difficult to map out their own curriculum requirements. No prerequisites exist where perhaps there should be some, making sequencing classes in the major difficult. I wonder if I should be taking a more pro-active approach, though. After teaching both EndNote classes I will hopefully be able to attend that department’s next meeting and talk a bit about the ways in which I might be able to strategically place library instruction throughout their major requirements.

I know I’m not alone in this dilemma and I’m curious as to how other instruction librarians have successfully moved beyond a piece-meal library instruction approach to programmatic information literacy integration.

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My Ideal Library Classroom

Last week I was struggling with the consequences of saying yes to too many instruction requests. I should have been a bit more controlling and spaced them out a bit, but I ended up agreeing to each instructor’s preferred dates and scheduling them all in the same 5 day period. Although doing so didn’t leave me with much time to work on other projects, at the end of the week I was intimately acquainted with our library instruction classroom lab.

We’re one of the lucky ones. Although not a dedicated library instruction space, we do have a lab classroom we can use for instruction.  It looks like this:

Behind this picture is a projector screen and white board wall:

What I like about our classroom lab:

  • It’s wired! The instructor computer is hooked up to a projector so that we can share our screen while teaching, and each of the students have their own computers to follow along or work on independent activities and research.
  • We have rolling chairs. It may seem silly, but having comfortable chairs for students makes a huge difference.
  • We can schedule our sessions ahead of time using a nice online reservation system.
  • It’s small. It’s a nice intimate space.
  • We have a nice large whiteboard wall perfect for brainstorming and illustrating research concepts not related to the mechanics of resource searching.

What I don’t like about our classroom:

  • It’s not a dedicated library instruction space. This classroom can also be scheduled by Writing Center faculty, and when not in use for classroom instruction it is a 24 hour open computer lab for students. The result? Empty food and beverage containers abound, furniture in disarray, and a general dirty feeling to the room in the mornings. Giving yourself 5 minutes to tidy up before a class is a must.
  • It’s the only one of its kind. This room is used for a wide range of library instruction and books up quickly! Couple that with the fact that ALL of our first year seminar classes (the heaviest library instruction customers) take place at Noon and we end up not able to accommodate all classes in this room. We do have 3 other library instruction spaces on the 3rd floor of our building. Although they all have multimedia stations and projectors for instructors, they do not contain the student computers necessary for hands on research.
  • It’s small. For a small class, it’s a great fit, but trying to include a group larger than 15-20 students is difficult.
  • The giant table in the middle. It’s too big and bulky for the space.
  • The student computers face the walls. I can only imagine that when this was done it was to make sure that the instructor could see the students’ screens during class. Or perhaps it was just the best way to fit computers in the room. Either way, it’s ineffective. Students that are going to go off task during class are going to do it whether or their professor can see their screens or not. With this set up we may be able to see the students at all times, but the students have to stop what they’re doing to pay any attention to the projection screen or the instructor.
  • The projector screen completely covers the whiteboard (or white wall in this case). As I’m showing students a database, the catalog, or other online resource, I can’t use the whiteboard wall to illustrate a search strategy, brainstorm keywords or do any other kind of scribbling because the space is almost completely covered.

As I mentioned earlier, the fact that we have a classroom space at all is a huge benefit to our instruction program, but if someone asked my to plan my ideal library classroom it would look quite different. There’s a great discussion going on at the moment through the ILI Listserv about information literacy instruction spaces. I’ve been comparing some of what I’ve seen people write about with our current library classroom and the spaces I used to teach in at the University of Houston M.D. Anderson Library to come up with my ideal library instruction scenario. We’ve been given an unlimited amount of money and space has magically been carved out in our existing building without impacting anything else. The result?

MY DREAM LIBRARY INSTRUCTION SPACE:

  • There are more than one. We have at least two library instruction classrooms. One for smaller groups (16 or fewer) and one for larger classes (30+). The smaller class would be where we would bring our first year seminar classes and small upper level courses. The larger space would accommodate bigger classes, of course. If we had to have a third it would be a research consultation room for small groups of 2-5 students to meet with a librarian. I’m thinking we could use it for SMP/Senior thesis students who share the same advisor or students working on a group research assignment
  • The classroom space is a dedicated library instruction space. No sharing. Sorry, kids.
  • There are multiple whiteboards in the classroom. This is so necessary for teaching while explaining a point in an online resource and can also be used for simple active learning exercises.
  • Computers for all! There’s an instructor station with projector hook up and each of the students have their own up to date, working computer. Since this is my dream space, the computers are all laptops, students don’t have sticky fingers and these machines don’t disappear.
  • A working printer is in the room.
  • Collaborate work space. Instead of our oak monster, I really like the look of these learning pods at Baker College of Muskegon.
  • Multiple projector screens in the room. This way all students don’t have to be facing the same direction all the time. Also, these projector screens won’t cover the whiteboards.
  • A way for students to project their own work from their computer to a screen. At UH we had classroom management software that allowed us to see what students were looking at on their computers. We didn’t use it to police students. Instead we used it (when it worked) to share a students’ screen with the class to illustrate an effective search or an important question, or to troubleshoot an issue the student was having. It was a nice way to hand over portions of the class to the students.
  • The instructor station is small or moveable. I dislike feeling chained to a big bulky podium, but I do still need to show certain resources online. A smaller, less obtrusive instructor station would be a good compromise.

I’m sure there are other features to my dream space that I’ll think to add later in the semester, but this is a good start for now. What does your ideal library instruction space look like?

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Just ‘Cause it’s Scholarly Don’t Make it Right

Choices by Flickr user Caleb Roenigk

Choices by Flickr user Caleb Roenigk

Last week at work looked a little something like this: Teaching, EndNote battle round 1, Reference Desk, EndNote battle round 2, Research Consultation with mildly concerned student, Lunch? Lunch! Research Consultation with deer-in-headlights-looking student, Teaching, Reference Desk with messed up printer (repeat).

The highlights of my week? Definitely the research consultations. I always feel most like a librarian when I’m meeting with a student or faculty member puzzling out the best ways to approach their literature review and research. I met with several psychology students working on their senior thesis projects (called St. Mary’s Projects or SMPs for short). Each student was at a different point in his/her research but they were all doing the exact same thing: Searching PsycINFO.

On the surface, the librarian in me should be proud. Students are consulting a library database for scholarly, peer-reviewed material instead of visiting www.psychologyresearchforyou.com for sources of questionable content (note: not a real site…yet). But the librarian in me is not proud. In fact, the librarian in me is cringing inside. After years of teaching the mechanics and benefits of using PsycINFO to students in psychology research methods classes I have come to realize that PsycINFO is all they know.

One of the SMP students I met with was clearly at the beginning of her research, trying to explore opportunities for research within a broad subject area. She would have GREATLY benefited from consulting a handbook or similar physical volumes that would have given her a better sense of the scope of research being done within her area of interest. Instead she was frantically plugging keywords into PsycINFO, trying to make sense of the very specific and not very helpful articles in her results list.

Another student was conducting a fascinating study about international students’ acculturation processes on our campus, but was again consulting PsycINFO for statistics on international students in the U.S. higher education system and coming up short.

Then there were the students whose research required resources with a different focus (like Pubmed, ERIC, or Business Source Complete). Half of them had never even heard of these databases.

As my week progressed I saw that this method of research was not (surprise!) a psychology isolated incident. Several political science SMP students needed a wide variety of information to start answering some of their research questions: statistics/data, policy papers, topic overviews, government reports, etc. But where were they starting their research? In JSTOR.

So here’s where I take a step back, stare at them in poorly hidden surprise, quickly recover my professional face and show them the magic of the internet and other library resources. All the while I can’t help but think: Librarians and college professors, is this our fault?

Our intentions were good. We wanted our students to know about the world of scholarly publishing. We wanted them to read and analyze peer-reviewed material that had a solid theoretical foundation and excellent research. We wanted them to know that using these kinds of sources in their own papers and presentations added credibility to their arguments and made their own research stronger.

But that’s not what they got from us. What they got from us was this:

SCHOLARY = GOOD. USE JSTOR.

NOT SCHOLARLY = BAD. STAY AWAY FROM THE INTERNET AND THINGS THAT DON’T COME FROM SCHOLARLY JOURNALS.

It’s simplistic, but I see it in the political science student who really needs to read the NY Times or Washington Post to get a better handle on the world event she’s analyzing, but instead downloads an esoteric article from JSTOR that s/he won’t understand very well and probably won’t read. I see it in the psychology student who doesn’t want to look at an online reference entry on her psychological concept because she can’t cite it in her paper, even though she can’t clearly articulate what this concept means. When I teach students about resources like PsycINFO or JSTOR I know that these are just two tools in a vast information toolkit, but do they?

Are Students Just Lazy?

If we wanted to shift the blame completely to our students–and let’s be honest, we all wish we could do that sometimes–we could view this monomaniacal searching behavior as an expression of laziness. They’ve traded in one easy search practice (plug it into Google) for another (plug it into JSTOR/PsycINFO/etc.). Their professors only want scholarly sources and they can find those sources in a library database, so why look anywhere else? I have heard students say they use only JSTOR because it contains the full-text of articles. They don’t seem to know or mind that the latest 5 years of research is often not included in their search results. They just know that they can access and download a scholarly article to meet whatever requirements their professor has set for a research paper or presentation. It’s an easy fix for a research need.

But What Does That Say About Us?

Even if we assume laziness on the part of our students, we do have to concede that we are, in some ways laying the groundwork for this laziness. Somewhere, at this very minute,  an instruction librarian is teaching a group of students how to distinguish between popular and scholarly sources. This librarian may have brought in a few copies of print journals and magazines to illustrate a few key differences in the material, but really the whole point of the lesson was to set the stage for where students would be going to find such authoritative research: a library database.

Last fall I attended a workshop hosted by the Maryland Information Literacy Exchange (MILEX) which was mostly about practical in-class instruction models (i.e. This is how I teach website evaluation). Only one presentation dipped into the murky waters of WHY we teach research sources to students the way we do. As librarians we often fall prey to the scholarly/not scholarly dichotomy, urging our students to consult sources that are “authoritative” and “credible.” In their MILEX presentation, Joel Burkholder and Laura Wukovitz presented an alternative approach to teaching source evaluation. They used rhetorical analysis to examine any source (websites, articles, books, etc.), focusing on its author, audience, purpose, and the greater context in which it exists. (They have a libguide with assignment examples and activities if you’re interested.)

This approach to teaching students resource evaluation leads to fundamental shift in the way students think about “sources.” According to Burkholder (who’s also written a great article on this topic), there are no “good sources” and “bad sources;” only helpful and unhelpful sources (I paraphrase because I can’t find my notes. Sorry, Joel!).

Let’s think about that again shall we? There are only helpful and unhelpful sources.

By freeing ourselves from the scholarly/popular sources dichotomy (which inevitable sets students up to look for “good” sources and stay away from the “bad”) we open our teaching, and as a result, our students, up to an amazing variety of resources. We don’t just have to focus on the scholarly articles that live in PsycINFO and similar databases. Our students are free to choose sources that best suit their information needs, instead of trying to find a scholarly article–any scholarly article–that tangentially mentions their research topic.

This does of course, mean more work for professors and librarians. I had a colleague admit that sending students to JSTOR was the easiest way to ensure that they were looking at quality research. This is true, but in taking this easy way out we’re not arming students with the skills necessary to find and evaluate the kind of information that lives outside of academic research databases. It is a lot more work to teach students why they would want to use a reference book or a Wikipedia article to get a better handle on their research topic or why it’s ok to include information from a website with a clear bias as long as you acknowledge their agenda in your writing. It’s not easy to teach the messy process of looking for reliable statistical information online or introduce the vast arena of policy institute research that may or may not lean left or right.

This kind of teaching also takes time, specifically time in a classroom, something that librarians often find themselves struggling to obtain from teaching faculty. There is no way to work through the nuances of the vast array of information available to students in a particular discipline in a one-shot class, or even in multiple sessions for one course. This kind of instruction requires a fully integrated information literacy curriculum across the discipline, where students have the opportunity to read and analyze different types of information, not just create the standard plug and chug term paper and call it research.
Check out the always thought-provoking Barbara Fister for her thoughts on the dreaded research paper and alternatives to it.

I have quite a few classes left to teach this semester and although many of the instructors I’m working with have very standard goals for their library sessions (find books in the library, find articles in databases) I’m trying to think of ways in which might be able to work in some of the critical thinking skills that will take students away from thinking that “scholarly” is always best.